Preliminary Design for Phytoremediation of Phosphate From Liquid Fertilizer Waste by Duckweed (Spirodela sp.) and Yellow Iris (Iris pseudacorus L.) Integrated with Biorefinery-based Processing System to Produce Value-added Bioproducts
Abstract—Agriculture is one of the biggest of Indonesia’s economic sectors, with the area used for agriculture totaling 8.19 million hectares. The usage of agricultural fertilizers is causing significant environmental contamination, with one of the biggest contaminants being excess phosphate. This is because phosphate is one of the most intensely used fertilizers but has the lowest plant absorption rate. Excess phosphate can cause the eutrophication of large bodies of water. One method used to reduce this effect is phytoremediation with Spirodela sp. and Iris pseudacorus L, which can reduce phosphate concentrations from 29.625 mg/l to 0.2 mg/l. By applying the biorefinery concept, in which plant biomasses are used, Spirodela sp. can be utilized to produce duckweed powder with a yield of 20.8% and flavonoids can be extracted from iris plants to produce flavonoid powder with a yield of 20.9%. These byproducts add economic value to the system to generating a gross profit margin of 5.91, thus indicating the profitability of applying the biorefinery concept to phytoremediation.
Keywords—phytoremediation; biorefinery; excess phosphate; value-added byproducts
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