Biodiesel production from acid oil and ethanol using cation-exchange resin catalyst

Muhammad Hamzah, Mochammad Fadholi

Abstract

The drawback of conventional biodiesel production process is the use of cooking oil, competing with the food sector, as well as the use of toxic methanol derived from fossil fuels. An alternative to the production of environmentally friendly and renewable biodiesel is by using the esterification process of waste acid oils and bioethanol as reactants. To reduce the separation cost and soap formation, cation-exchange resins are used as heterogeneous catalysts. Biodiesel production is conducted in a 1 L batch reactor for 2 days to determine the concentration profile of the esterification reaction between oleic acid (OA) and ethanol (EtOH), as well as products such as biodiesel (FAEE) and water (W) at a molar ratio of EtOH: OA = 1: 1, 3: 1 and 5: 1. The fastest conversion of OA is obtained through the molar ratio of EtOH: OA = 5: 1 with 100% conversion in 36 hours. A kinetic model is constructed and fitted with the experimental results to determine the correlation of the kinetic parameters with the concentration profile of the biodiesel production. The kinetic model is proved to simulate the esterification behaviors under various conditions and in accordance with the experimental results.

Keywords— biodiesel, cation exchange resin, ethanol,  kinetic modeling, waste acid oil,


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