Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Patients in an Intensive Care Unit

Arisanti Prabandini, Tuti Herawati


Objective: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia that occurs in patients with mechanical ventilation, such as tracheostomy or endotracheal intubation, for >2 days of treatment. VAP is the most common infection in intensive care units (ICUs) and has become the cause of mortality, major morbidity, and increased financial burden.

Methods: This retrospective study with cross-sectional approach aimed to explain VAP incidence in patients in the ICU of a district hospital from May 2016 until April 2017.

Results: The result of this study indicated that most patients who developed VAP were middle-aged adult males (45.2%) (52.4%) with late onset VAP (66.7%). The comorbidity score was low (81.0%), and the most common comorbidity was cerebrovascular injury (35.7%). Gram-negative bacteria were the most common cause of VAP (88.1%).

Conclusion: VAP incidence was high, because of the patient’s length of stay, clinician’s noncompliance with hand hygiene, poorly implemented standard operational procedure of VAP bundle care, and staff rotation. It is important for nursing managers to develop effective standard operational procedure for VAP bundle care and appropriate documentation of VAP incidence used CPIS until VAP incidence report is appropriately documented.

Keywords: VAP bundle; VAP incidence; ventilator-associated pneumonia

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